Extensible 3D (X3D)
Part 1: Architecture and base components

26 Humanoid Animation (HAnim) component

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cube 26.1 Introduction

26.1.1 Name

The name of this component is " HAnim". This name shall be used when referring to this component in the COMPONENT statement (see 7.2.5.4 Component statement).

26.1.2 Overview

This clause describes the Humanoid Animation ( HAnim) component of this part of ISO/IEC 19775. Table 26.1 provides links to the major topics in this clause. The HAnim component of X3D defines the node bindings and other specifics for implementing ISO/IEC 19774 (see [I19774]) within X3D.

Table 26.1 — Topics

cube 26.2 Concepts

This component maps the functionality defined in ISO/IEC 19774 to a set of X3D nodes. The semantics for these nodes are as specified therein.

cube 26.3 Node reference

26.3.1 HAnimDisplacer

HAnimDisplacer : X3DGeometricPropertyNode {
  MFInt32  [in,out] coordIndex    []   [0,∞) or -1
  SFString [in,out] description   ""
  MFVec3f  [in,out] displacements []
  SFNode   [in,out] metadata      NULL [X3DMetadataObject]
  SFString [in,out] name          ""
  SFFloat  [in,out] weight        0.0  (-∞,∞)
}

Applications may need to alter the shape of individual segments. At the most basic level, this is done by writing to the point field of the node derived from X3DCoordinateNode that is found in the coord field of the HAnimSegment node.

In some cases, the application may need to be able to identify specific groups of vertices within an HAnimSegment.

EXAMPLE  The application may need to know which vertices within the skull HAnimSegment comprise the left eyebrow.

It may also require "hints" as to the direction in which each vertex should move. That information is stored in a node called an HAnimDisplacer. The HAnimDisplacers for a particular HAnimSegment are stored in the displacers field of that HAnimSegment.

Each field is described in ISO/IEC 19774.

26.3.2 HAnimHumanoid

HAnimHumanoid : X3DChildNode, X3DBoundedObject {
  SFVec3f    [in,out] center                0 0 0    (-∞,∞)
  SFString   [in,out] description           ""
  SFBool     [in,out] bboxDisplay           FALSE
  SFBool     [in,out] visible               TRUE
  MFString   [in,out] info                  []
  MFVec3f    [in,out] jointBindingPositions []       (-∞,∞)
  MFRotation [in,out] jointBindingRotations []       (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  MFVec3f    [in,out] jointBindingScales    []       (0,∞)
  MFNode     [in,out] joints                []       [HAnimJoint]
  SFInt32    [in,out] loa                   -1       [-1,4]
  SFNode     [in,out] metadata              NULL     [X3DMetadataObject]
  MFNode     [in,out] motions               []       [HAnimMotion]
  MFBool     [in,out] motionsEnabled        []
  SFString   [in,out] name                  ""
  SFRotation [in,out] rotation              0 0 1 0  (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] scale                 1 1 1    (0,∞)
  SFRotation [in,out] scaleOrientation      0 0 1 0  (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  MFNode     [in,out] segments              []       [HAnimSegment]
  MFNode     [in,out] sites                 []       [HAnimSite]
  SFString   [in,out] skeletalConfiguration "BASIC"
  MFNode     [in,out] skeleton              []       [HAnimJoint, HAnimSite]
  MFNode     [in,out] skin                  []       [IndexedFaceSet, X3DGroupingNode, Shape][IndexedFaceSet, IndexedFanSet, IndexedQuadSet, IndexedTriangleSet, IndexedTriangleStripSet]
  SFNode     [in,out] skinBindingCoord      NULL     [X3DCoordinateNode]
  SFNode     [in,out] skinBindingNormal     NULL     [X3DNormalNode]
  SFNode     [in,out] skinCoord             NULL     [X3DCoordinateNode]
  SFNode     [in,out] skinNormal            NULL     [X3DNormalNode]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] translation           0 0 0    (-∞,∞)
  SFString   [in,out] version               ""
  MFNode     [in,out] viewpoints            []       [HAnimSite]
  SFVec3f    []       bboxCenter            0 0 0    (-∞,∞)
  SFVec3f    []       bboxSize              -1 -1 -1 [0,∞) or −1 −1 −1
}

The HAnimHumanoid node is used to store human-readable data such as author and copyright information, as well as to store references to the HAnimJoint, HAnimMotion, HAnimSegment, and HAnimSite nodes in addition to serving as a container for the entire humanoid. Thus, it serves as an essential node for moving the humanoid through its environment.

Each field is described in ISO/IEC 19774.

Metadata values from the info field can be equivalently encoded via MetadataSet containing related X3DMetadataObject nodes.

26.3.3 HAnimJoint

HAnimJoint : X3DGroupingNode {
  MFNode     [in]     addChildren               [HAnimJoint,HAnimSegment,HAnimSite]
  MFNode     [in]     removeChildren            [HAnimJoint,HAnimSegment,HAnimSite]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] center           0 0 0    (-∞,∞)`
  MFNode     [in,out] children         []       [HAnimJoint,HAnimSegment,HAnimSite]
  SFString   [in,out] description      ""
  MFNode     [in,out] displacers       []       [HAnimDisplacer]
  SFBool     [in,out] bboxDisplay      FALSE
  SFBool     [in,out] visible          TRUE
  SFRotation [in,out] limitOrientation 0 0 1 0  (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  MFVec3f    [in,out] llimit           []       (-∞,∞)
  SFNode     [in,out] metadata         NULL     [X3DMetadataObject]
  SFString   [in,out] name             ""
  SFRotation [in,out] rotation         0 0 1 0  (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] scale            1 1 1    (0,∞)
  SFRotation [in,out] scaleOrientation 0 0 1 0  (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  MFInt32    [in,out] skinCoordIndex   []       [0,∞)
  MFFloat    [in,out] skinCoordWeight  []       [0,1]
  MFFloat    [in,out] stiffness        [0 0 0]  [0,1]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] translation      0 0 0    (-∞,∞)
  MFVec3f    [in,out] ulimit           []       (-∞,∞)
  SFVec3f    []       bboxCenter       0 0 0    (-∞,∞)
  SFVec3f    []       bboxSize         -1 -1 -1 [0,∞) or −1 −1 −1
}

Each joint in the body is represented by an HAnimJoint node, which is used to define the relationship of each body segment to its immediate parent.

An HAnimJoint may only be a child of another HAnimJoint node or a child within the skeleton field in the case of the HAnimJoint used as a humanoid root ( i.e., an HAnimJoint may not be a child of an HAnimSegment).

The HAnimJoint node is also used to store other joint-specific information. In particular, a joint name is provided so that applications can identify each HAnimJoint node at run-time. The HAnimJoint node may contain hints for inverse-kinematics systems that wish to control the HAnim figure. These hints include the upper and lower joint limits, the orientation of the joint limits, and a stiffness/resistance value.

NOTE  These limits are not enforced by any mechanism within the scene graph of the humanoid, and are provided for information purposes only. Use of this information and enforcement of the joint limits is up to the application.

Humanoid authors and tools are free to implement the HAnimJoint node however they choose. In particular, they may choose to use a single polygonal mesh to represent a humanoid, rather than having a separate IndexedFaceSet for each body segment. In such a case, an HAnimJoint would be responsible for moving the vertices that correspond to a particular body segment and all the segments descended from it.

Each field is described in ISO/IEC 19774.

26.3.4 HAnimMotion

HAnimMotion : X3DChildNode {
  SFBool   [in]     next
  SFBool   [in]     previous
  SFString [in,out] channels         ""
  MFBool   [in,out] channelsEnabled  []
  SFString [in,out] description      ""
  SFBool   [in,out] enabled          TRUE
  SFInt32  [in,out] endFrame         0      [0,∞)
  SFTime   [in,out] frameDuration    0.1    (0,∞)
  SFInt32  [in,out] frameIncrement   1      (-∞,∞)
  SFInt32  [in,out] frameIndex       0      [0,∞)
  SFString [in,out] joints           ""                  
  SFInt32  [in,out] loa              -1     [-1,4]
  SFBool   [in,out] loop             false
  SFNode   [in,out] metadata         NULL   [X3DMetadataObject]
  SFInt32  [in,out] startFrame       0      [0,∞)
  MFFloat  [in,out] values           []     (-∞,∞)
  SFTime   [out]    cycleTime
  SFTime   [out]    elapsedTime      (0,∞)
  SFInt32  [out]    frameCount              [0,∞)
}

HAnimMotion is used for motion animation of Humanoid characters. Raw motion data, for example, motion capture data, details the number of frames, the frame display time, and the parameter values for the motion from each channel at each frame.

Each field is described in ISO/IEC 19774.

26.3.5 HAnimSegment

HAnimSegment : X3DGroupingNode {
  MFNode   [in]     addChildren                          [X3DChildNode]
  MFNode   [in]     removeChildren                       [X3DChildNode]
  SFVec3f  [in,out] centerOfMass     0 0 0               (-∞,∞)
  MFNode   [in,out] children         []                  [X3DChildNode]
  SFNode   [in,out] coord            NULL                [X3DCoordinateNode]
  SFString [in,out] description      ""
  MFNode   [in,out] displacers       []                  [HAnimDisplacer]
  SFBool   [in,out] bboxDisplay      FALSE
  SFBool   [in,out] visible          TRUE
  SFFloat  [in,out] mass             0                   [0,∞)
  SFNode   [in,out] metadata         NULL                [X3DMetadataObject]
  MFFloat  [in,out] momentsOfInertia [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0] [0,∞)
  SFString [in,out] name             ""
  SFVec3f  []       bboxCenter       0 0 0               (-∞,∞)
  SFVec3f  []       bboxSize         -1 -1 -1            [0,∞) or −1 −1 −1
}

Each body segment is stored in an HAnimSegment node. The HAnimSegment node is a grouping node that will typically contain either a number of Shape nodes or perhaps Transform nodes that position the body part within its coordinate system as defined in ISO/IEC 19774. The use of LOD nodes is recommended if the geometry of the HAnimSegment is complex.

Each field is described in ISO/IEC 19774.

26.3.6 HAnimSite

HAnimSite : X3DGroupingNode {
  MFNode     [in]     addChildren               [X3DChildNode]
  MFNode     [in]     removeChildren            [X3DChildNode]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] center           0 0 0    (-∞,∞)
  MFNode     [in,out] children         []       [X3DChildNode]
  SFString   [in,out] description      ""
  SFBool     [in,out] bboxDisplay      FALSE
  SFBool     [in,out] visible          TRUE
  SFNode     [in,out] metadata         NULL     [X3DMetadataObject]
  SFString   [in,out] name             ""
  SFRotation [in,out] rotation         0 0 1 0  (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] scale            1 1 1    (0,∞)
  SFRotation [in,out] scaleOrientation 0 0 1 0  (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  SFVec3f    [in,out] translation      0 0 0    (-∞,∞)|[-1,1]
  SFVec3f    []       bboxCenter       0 0 0    (-∞,∞)
  SFVec3f    []       bboxSize         -1 -1 -1 [0,∞) or −1 −1 −1
}

An HAnimSite node serves three purposes. The first is to define an "end effecter" location that can be used by an inverse kinematics system. The second is to define an attachment point for accessories such as jewelry and clothing. The third is to define a location for a virtual camera in the reference frame of an HAnimSegment (such as a view "through the eyes" of the humanoid for use in multi-user worlds).

Each field is described in ISO/IEC 19774.

cube 26.4 Support levels

The HAnim component provides 3 levels of support as specified in Table 26.2.

Table 26.2 — Humanoid animation (HAnim) component support levels

Level Prerequisites Nodes/Features Support
1 Core 1
Grouping 1
Geometry3D 2
Shape 1
Texturing 1
Navigation 2
HAnimHumanoid skeleton support
HAnimDisplacer All fields fully supported.
HAnimHumanoid All fields fully supported except skin, skinCoord, skinNormal, skinBindingCoord, skinBindingNormal, motions and motionsEnabled fields.
HAnimJoint All fields fully supported except skinCoordIndex and skinCoordWeight fields.
HAnimSegment All fields fully supported.
HAnimSite All fields fully supported.
2 Core 1
Grouping 1
Geometry3D 2
Shape 1
Texturing 1
Navigation 2
HAnimHumanoid skin support
HAnimDisplacer All fields fully supported.
HAnimHumanoid All fields fully supported except motions and motionsEnabled fields.
HAnimJoint All fields fully supported.
HAnimSegment All fields fully supported.
HAnimSite All fields fully supported.
3 Core 1
Grouping 1
Geometry3D 2
Shape 1
Texturing 1
Navigation 2
Motion animation support
HAnimDisplacer All fields fully supported.
HAnimHumanoid All fields fully supported.
HAnimJoint All fields fully supported.
HAnimMotion All fields fully supported.
HAnimSegment All fields fully supported.
HAnimSite All fields fully supported.
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