Material nodes are the primary way to define color, transparency and shininess for geometric objects.
The Material node controls overall rendering properties including the shading color (diffuseColor),
glow color (emissiveColor), transparency, shininess and ambient intensity.
Proper combinations of values can emulate the properties of shiny materials, such as metals.
These X3D scenes are adapted directly from the
original VRML 2.0 Sourcebook chapter examples.
Introduction to VRML97 SIGGRAPH98 course notes.