Texture images are in a texture coordinate system.
By default, an entire texture image is mapped once around the shape.
You can also extract only pieces of interest, or create repeating patterns.
Texture coordinates and indexes describe a texture cookie cutter.
Texture transforms translate, rotate, and scale place the cookie cutter.
Texture indexes bind the cut-out cookie texture to a face on a shape.
These X3D scenes are adapted directly from the
original VRML 2.0 Sourcebook chapter examples.
Introduction to VRML97 SIGGRAPH98 course notes.